The majority of the English infantry forces at Bannockburn were made up of ‘mixed’ fighting men, armed and armoured in a disparate way. A wide range of weapons was employed, including long-hafted axes, swords and bucklers, and short infantry spears.
It was William Wallace who initiated forming Spearmen into hedgehog-like phalanxes with spear-shafts, some as long as 18 feet, to devastating effect. This was emulated in later battles by the English but whereas the originals could defy cavalry charges, the English short infantry spears offered little in comparison.
These were different times, and the arming and protection of infantry was almost ad hoc and depended to some degree on the soldier himself. Armour was quite varied, but was generally of one inexpensive form or another – mostly padded textile coats. Chain mail and scale armour was worn by those who were able to get a hold of it, even among the common soldiery. War hats were generally helmets of choice, made of iron or hardened leather reinforced with iron, although other forms of head protection such as skull-caps of iron or hardened leather were also typical.
This is a spearman of the Earl De Warrenne who was instrumental for the English monarchy in the many sojourns against the Scots. De Warrenne died in mysterious circumstances only a few months after Bannockburn at the age of 41.